Podcastlytteren som hverdagskurator: En undersøgelse af podcastlytning som praksisfænomen i hverdagen

Forfattere

Sigrid Nielsen Saabye
Arts, Aarhus Universitet
Nøgleord: podcasts, podcastlytning, podcasting, kvalitative metoder, kreative metoder, hverdagsliv, hermeneutisk fænomenologi, radio, on demand-medier, lydmedier

Synopsis

Streaming og on demand-mediebrug er en generel medietendens, der breder sig i disse år i kraft af digitaliseringen af medierne. Som et on demand-medie indebærer podcasten en meget stor valgfrihed for sine brugere, idet lytterne står overfor et næsten ubegrænset udvalg af programindhold at vælge imellem: ældre og nye programmer, fra amatører og fra professionelle producenter, fra ind- og udland, forskellige emner og genrer, og alt sammen gratis. Podcasten anses hermed som et godt udgangspunkt for at undersøge on demand-mediebrug og streamingkultur, samt de udvælgelsesmotiver og -strategier, der knytter sig hertil – fordi der på indholdsområdet i langt overvejende grad reelt er frit valg for podcastlytteren.

Podcasten er samtidig et mobilt medie, der, i kraft af sin lydlighed, kan inddrages i mange forskellige hverdagslige situationer og sammenhænge, idet det kun okkuperer høresansen, mens resten af kroppen er fri til at gøre andre ting. En undersøgelse af, hvilke situationer podcasten inddrages i af denne frie, aktive lytter – og ikke mindst hvordan og hvorfor – vil således ikke blot kunne give en unik forståelse af podcastlytning som praksis, men ville også kunne bidrage med et hverdagssociologisk indblik i podcastlytterens hverdag, samt hvordan denne håndteres med podcasten som en form for medie-værktøj hertil.

Med det forskningsprojekt, som nærværende ph.d.-afhandling baserer sig på, har jeg sat mig for at gøre netop dette. Den primære hensigt med projektet har været at undersøge podcastlytning som hverdagsligt praksisfænomen, og jeg opererede her med følgende tre forskningsspørgsmål, som har styret projektet:

  • RQ1 - Podcastpraksisser: Hvad karakteriserer podcastlytning som (mediebrugs)-praksis, og hvordan bliver podcasts brugt og i hvilke situationer?
  • RQ2 – Brugsmotiver, udvælgelse og funktioner: Hvordan bliver podcastene udvalgt og med hvilke motiver for øje, og hvilke funktioner får/gives podcastmediet hermed i en hverdagslig kontekst?
  • RQ3 – Kontekstuelt forankrede lytteoplevelser: Hvordan opleves podcastlytningen i situationen og herunder relationen mellem hhv. podcastindholdet (auditiv kontekst), lytteren (personlig kontekst) og lyttesituationen (fysisk kontekst), og hvad er lytteren rettet mod, både kognitivt, opmærksomhedsmæssigt og relationelt/socialt gennem lytteforløbet?

Forskningsprojektet består af en omfattende kvalitativ, empirisk undersøgelse af podcast- lytteres praksis med og oplevelser af podcast i hverdagslivet. Undersøgelsen består af interviews, logbogs- og workshopmateriale fra i alt 25 informanter, der fordeler sig således:

13 dybdeinterviews med indledende spørgsmål, 9 logbogsforløb med ugentlige øvelser samt én LEGO-workshop med i alt tre informanter, som byggede LEGO-modeller som et udgangspunkt for samtaler om podcastlytning.

Metodisk er jeg generelt gået åbent og eksplorativt til værks i dataindsamlingen, og jeg har benyttet en induktiv tilgang baseret på hermeneutisk fænomenologi og også inspireret af grounded theory. Jeg har i høj grad udviklet og inddraget kreative metoder, hvor informanterne har skullet besvare mine spørgsmål på flere og alternative måder end blot det sprogligt berettende: bl.a. ved at tegne skitser af og tage billeder fra lyttesituationer, ved at indtale egne podcast-optagelser, ved at bygge LEGO-modeller og ikke mindst ved at beskrive vha. metaforer.

Under databehandlingen og analyseprocessen er jeg ligeledes gået åbent og induktivt til værks, idet jeg har taget udgangspunkt i informanternes konkrete beretninger som basis for analysen, hvorefter jeg først efterfølgende har kvalificeret mine analyser ved at inddrage relevante teoretiske perspektiver.

Afhandlingen består af følgende kapitler:
Først et indledende kapitel hvori relevansperspektiver, forskningsspørgsmål og afhandlingens struktur præsenteres.
Hernæst et baggrundskapitel, der indplacerer projektet i og i relation til relevante forskningsfelter, især podcastforskningen som selvstændigt felt, men også i høj grad det medievidenskabelige fagfelt.
Tredje kapitel er et metodologisk kapitel, hvori jeg præsenterer mit videnskabsteoretiske standpunkt i den hermeneutiske fænomenologi, udleder mine metodiske grundprincipper herfra samt afslutningsvist redegør for mine konkrete metoder i undersøgelsens enkelte faser.
I fjerde kapitel beskrives, analyseres og diskuteres praksisfænomenet podcastlytning ud fra i alt fire perspektiver: praksis, oplevelser, funktioner og podcasten betragtet som et medie. I afhandlingens femte og sidste kapitel afslutter jeg med at konkludere, skitsere de vigtigste resultater og komme med forslag til væsentlige perspektiver for fremtidig forskning i podcastlytning.

Ph.d.-afhandlingens overordnede bidrag er en dybdegående beskrivelse af podcastlytning som praksisfænomen. Analysens resultater opsummeres i følgende afsnit:

Podcastlytning som praksis:

Podcastlytning er kendetegnet ved en fokuseret, multitaskende lyttemodus, hvor lytteren typisk er koncentreret om podcasten samtidig med at hun er i gang med andre parallelle, praktiske aktiviteter. Podcasten betragtes som et udpræget pull-medie, hvor lytteren udvælger specifikt indhold med henblik på at matche egne præferencer men også den konkrete lyttekontekst, indholdet skal inddrages i. Denne aktive, selvstændige udvælgelse udmønter sig i både en kvalitativ og kvantitativ forpligtelse over for det udvalgte indhold, hvor lytteren forpligter sig på at høre efter og engagere sig heri over længere tid. Podcasten kan her samtidig betragtes som et push-medie, hvor lytteren betragter og behandler podcastepisoder som værende en del af et længere forløb – et podcastflow – som hun til en vis grad forpligter sig til at følge.

Podcastlytning som en oplevelse:

Podcastlytteren oplever på sin vis at se dobbelt, idet det det forestillede mentale billede af det hørte i podcasten smelter sammen med det perciperede billede af omgivelser i lyttesituationen, hvilket resulterer i et samlet, sammensat erindringsbillede af lytteoplevelsen. Selvom podcasten i høj grad bliver brugt og oplevet som et meget personligt – endda intimt – medie, der primært bruges alene, så er lytteoplevelsen samtidig omkranset af (oplevede) sociale relationer: dels oplever lytteren de medvirkende som nærværende og som en form for tætte bekendtskaber og venner; dels oplever lytteren at tage del i et lytterfællesskab af podcastlyttere, der deler praksisser, interesser og værdier på tværs af tid og rum.

 Podcastens rolle og funktion i hverdagen:

Podcasten bliver både brugt som et skjold, der skærmer lytteren fra uønskede elementer i hverdagslivet (kaotiske som kedelige), og til at tilføje en ekstra dimension til hverdagen i form af viden, perspektiver, indsigter og medierede (para-)sociale relationer. Podcasten bliver desuden brugt som et redskab til at regulere ens humør og stemning i bestemte situationer, og til at optimere hverdagen idet man kan multitaske: man kan stimulere hjernen samtidig med at man får noget fra hånden i form af praktiske hverdagsopgaver, der skal ordnes.

 Podcastfænomenet set fra et lytterperspektiv:

Ph.d.-afhandlingen demonstrerer, hvordan podcastfænomenet betragtet fra et lytterperspektiv skal forstås som et medie, der minder om, men samtidig er væsensforskellig fra radiomediet i forhold til de potentielle og aktuelle brugspraksisser og -oplevelser, det muliggør for sine lyttere i en hverdagslig kontekst.

Ph.d.-afhandlingen rummer desuden et væsentligt metodisk bidrag, idet det metodiske design bidrager med konkrete forslag til, hvorledes man ved inddragelsen af kreative, skabende metoder kan åbne op for et fænomen og igangsætte refleksion omkring det pågældende emnes betydning.

 

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Forsidebillede til Podcastlytteren som hverdagskurator: En undersøgelse af podcastlytning som praksisfænomen i hverdagen
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august 25, 2021

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ISBN-13 (15)
978-87-7507-508-9